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 Cours : Histoire des USA.

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thestral.

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Date d'inscription : 12/02/2015

MessageSujet: Cours : Histoire des USA.   Sam 6 Jan - 1:06

- 18/10/2017
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thestral.

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Messages : 740
Date d'inscription : 12/02/2015

MessageSujet: Re: Cours : Histoire des USA.   Sam 6 Jan - 1:06

18/10/2017

Checks and balances : limites/contrôle des pouvoirs pour éviter de retomber dans un sytème tyrannique comme celui de la couronne britannique.
It gave them a protection against a cruel politic.


THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR.

I ) SECESSION AND THE OUTBREAK OF WAR.

UNION = north of the USA.
vs
CONFEDERACY = south of the USA.

Ab. Lincoln was against slavery as a person, but as a president it was hard to handle bc politics.

The north won the war (1861 - 1865), and slavery was abolished at the very end of the war throught the 13th amendment. All slaves were freed / freed themselves and received citizenship.

South & North differences were deepening during / before the war. "Free soil" vs ??? = marketting (??)

What triggered this was ?

-> 1820 Missouri Compromise ( = territory of m. requested to be added as a state in the union, but it was a slave state. if it was included as a state in the union, it would have make more slave states. So the came up w/ a Mis. Compromise : M. was added as a slave state, but they also created the Maine as a free state to balance. Congress drew an imaginary line along the southern border of M. and said that North of this line would be free states and at the south slave states, so that created the separation north/south. )

California was conquered on 1848 after the Mexican War. USA got an access to a whole new territory to what became later California.

Bleeding Concess - period of deesagreements btw states.

-> Dred Scott Case : a slave asked for his freedom because his master had taken him to live in a free state, and that case was brought to the Supreme Court. S. C denied his freedom, saying that he wasn't a citizen of the USA and residing in a free land couldn't free him. > Major Constitution victory for slave power.

1860 - Lincoln was elected with no single vote from the south.

-> Questioning slavery meant question the southern way of life, white supremacy, etc. So they were very emotionnal about it. Not everyone in the south had a slave but even if they were poor they all accepted slavery bc of white supremacy.

-> The North was in favor of free labor, but South didn't.

-> The issue of state rights.

-> South felt out of the politics bc of Lincoln't election. He was a Republican.

(dodo)

Tried to create their own story with songs, etc, like a "new country". They tried to unify the new nation by saying that the Confederacy was the true future of the Nation.

II ) THE FIRST BATTLES.

Everyone was eager to fight and really into the war. Their were all fighting for what the believed to be the future of the Nation. In the south half a million southerners volontered to fight. Both sides were certain the war will be quick and easy to win.

But armies were undisciplined on both sides. Lincoln gave the leading of the army to McClellan (UNION ARMY).

South
- defensive strategy
- blockade of southern ports, to starve the South
- negociate treates with american natives

North :
- offensive strategy
- concentrate troops at strategics points

Slaves ran away when they had the opportunity - what did the North do with these slaves ?
-> They were mainly used for purposes, but not as soldiers.

1862 - Battle of Shiloh : No victory on both sides but great lost (24 000 died in one day). A real slaughter.

III ) THE CHANGES BROUGHT BY THE WAR.

North
- factoris and farms unharmed, great productivity
- inflation of prices (coffee x3, sugar x2, etc)
- labour militance (strikes, demonstrations, unions) = activisme des travailleurs
- new roles for women (all) : nurses, etc
- increased deferal powers

South
- industrial developpement but limited
- inflation of prices far worse and leaded to more poverty and class tensions
- new roles for women (whites) : nurses, etc
- centralized

IV ) THE QUESTION OF EMANCIPATION.

They both lacked the true purpose of the war - references to slavery (but it was the main purpose, again). Davis wanted to avoid class conflict in the south. Lincoln hoped that a pro-Union majority would emerge in the south (lol). He didn't want to alienate de Border States (Missouri Kentucky Maryland Delaware). Many racists people in the North.

Lincoln believed in gradual emancipation - he didn't think that a clear emancipation was possible. Radical republicans wanted a clear abolition of slavery.

July 1862 - Confiscation Act (= any confederet who refuse to surrender in ares occupied by the Union Army would see his property - including slaves - confiscated, and these slaves would be "forever slaved from slavitude".)

Janvier 1, 1863 - Emancipation Proclamation
-> Lincoln's gonna emancipate the slaves in the states "in rebellion".

Seward said : " We show our sympathy for slavery by emancting slaves were we cannont reach them and holding them in bondage were we can set them free".

One more step towards emancipation for slaves.

Black Agency : Black people as agents of their own history. Acts of self emancipation such as runaways of slaves. Role of Great African American leaders (like F. DOUGLASS, H. TUBMAN, S. TRUTH). ~ 180 000 people. Many black peoples were spies for the Union cause (one of them was H. TUBMAN). Helping other slaves to runaway is called "Underground Railroad". W. JACKSON was one of Jefferson Davis' slaves so he gave a lot of powerful informations. J. SCOBELL was a spie slave too.

January 1865 - 13th Amendment to Abolish slavery sent to ratification.
April 2, 1865 - Lee (????) abandonned Richmond.
April 9, 1865 - He surrendered at Appomattox.
April 14, 1865 - Lincoln died of his wounds after being shot at the theater by a southern man. His VP became President (Johnson), a white supremacist.
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